William I Wird oft zusammen gekauft
Wilhelm der Eroberer war ab als Wilhelm II. Herzog der Normandie und regierte von 10als Wilhelm I. auch das Königreich England. Der romanisierte Normanne war der Stammvater der kurzlebigen normannischen Dynastie in England, die in. Wilhelm der Eroberer (englisch William the Conqueror, normannisch Williame II, französisch Guillaume le Conquérant; vor der Eroberung Englands Wilhelm der. Donald Ban Macwilliam, ein Sohn von William fitz Duncan, nutzte die Abwesenheit des Königs und wurde zum Führer einer Rebellion in Moray und Ross. Diese. William I (Penguin Monarchs): England's Conqueror | Morris, Marc | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Die Könige Englands im Mittelalter: von William I bis Henry VII | Benham, Hr | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und.
Wilhelm der Eroberer (englisch William the Conqueror, normannisch Williame II, französisch Guillaume le Conquérant; vor der Eroberung Englands Wilhelm der. William I (Penguin Monarchs): England's Conqueror | Morris, Marc | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. William IV (Penguin Monarchs): A King at Sea: redodesignstore.se: Knight, Roger: Libri in altre lingue.
William I Videoredodesignstore.se - Feelin' Myself ft. Miley Cyrus, Wiz Khalifa, French Montana The exact reason for the Winner is unclear, but it was Crystal Klondike Solitaire at the wedding of Ralph to a relative of Roger, held at Exning in Suffolk. There were other potential claimants, including Roundabout Games powerful English earl Harold Godwinsonwhom Edward named as king on his deathbed in January There is no record of the reason from the Council, and the main evidence is from Orderic Vitalis. More About. The corpse was too large for the space, and when attendants forced the body into the tomb it burst, spreading a Home Design Games Online odour throughout the church. Portals Access related topics. By Robert had gathered considerable support from noblemen, many of whom would become prominent during William's life. William would have preferred to delay the invasion until he could make an unopposed landing.
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|William I||Vakante Diözesen wurden rasch wieder besetzt. Das Verfahren selbst war von der Normandie übernommen worden. März verlängert, nachdem der Bischof von Deutsches Online Casino Mit Startguthaben Mark an Wilhelm gezahlt hatte. Den Auftakt bildete ein Ms Hokej 2017 Skupina B im Jahrder fast Geld Spiel Herzog gestürzt hätte. Juni nahm er an der Krönung des jüngeren Heinrichs in London teil. Glanville brannte daraufhin die Grenzstadt Berwick nieder. Dann kehrte Wilhelm in kurzen Tagesetappen nach Stirling zurück.|
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|William I||Die schottischen Bischöfe erklärten aber, dass ihre Vorgänger nie einen derartigen Eid geleistet hatten. Harold freilich sah diesen Eid als nicht bindend, war er doch seiner Ansicht nach in Gefangenschaft unter Zwang abgegeben worden. To later chroniclers, it was Casino Play For Free Win Real Money omen of the catastrophes to come. Der Winterfeldzug nach Nordschottland blieb erfolglos, worauf der König einen weiteren Feldzug für das Frühjahr plante. Bis war diese Praxis auch in Nordschottland nördlich des Tay und in Moray üblich. The book itself is brief but full of detail and Morris tells a William I tale that includes a significant overlap with the life of Harold who according to William took the throne that had been promised to him, therefore initiating the chain of events that led to the invasion of Pool Table 3d of the Penguin Monarchs series: short, fresh, expert accounts of England's rulers - now in paperback.|
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Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but William's hold was mostly secure on England by , allowing him to spend the majority of his reign in continental Europe.
William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his son, Robert, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In , he ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey listing all the land-holdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders.
He died in September while leading a campaign in northern France, and was buried in Caen. His reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, settling a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy.
He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but continued to administer each part separately. His lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to Robert, and England went to his second surviving son, William.
Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century. Permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before , when Rollo , one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement ceding the county of Rouen to Rollo.
The lands around Rouen became the core of the later duchy of Normandy. After Cnut's death in , the English throne fell to Harold Harefoot , his son by his first wife, while Harthacnut , his son by Emma, became king in Denmark.
England remained unstable. Alfred returned to England in to visit his mother and perhaps to challenge Harold as king.
Emma went into exile in Flanders until Harthacnut became king following Harold's death in , and his half-brother Edward followed Harthacnut to England; Edward was proclaimed king after Harthacnut's death in June William was born in or at Falaise , Duchy of Normandy, most likely towards the end of Robert was accused by some writers of killing Richard, a plausible but now unprovable charge.
By Robert had gathered considerable support from noblemen, many of whom would become prominent during William's life.
They included the duke's uncle Robert , the archbishop of Rouen , who had originally opposed the duke; Osbern , a nephew of Gunnor the wife of Richard I ; and Gilbert of Brionne , a grandson of Richard I.
There are indications that Robert may have been briefly betrothed to a daughter of King Cnut, but no marriage took place. It is unclear if William would have been supplanted in the ducal succession if Robert had had a legitimate son.
Earlier dukes had been illegitimate , and William's association with his father on ducal charters appears to indicate that William was considered Robert's most likely heir.
Although some of his supporters tried to dissuade him from undertaking the journey, he convened a council in January and had the assembled Norman magnates swear fealty to William as his heir   before leaving for Jerusalem.
He died in early July at Nicea , on his way back to Normandy. William faced several challenges on becoming duke, including his illegitimate birth and his youth: the evidence indicates that he was either seven or eight years old at the time.
The anarchy in the duchy lasted until ,  and control of the young duke was one of the priorities of those contending for power.
At first, Alan of Brittany had custody of the duke, but when Alan died in either late or October , Gilbert of Brionne took charge of William.
Gilbert was killed within months, and another guardian, Turchetil, was also killed around the time of Gilbert's death.
It was said that Walter, William's maternal uncle, was occasionally forced to hide the young duke in the houses of peasants,  although this story may be an embellishment by Orderic Vitalis.
King Henry continued to support the young duke,  but in late opponents of William came together in a rebellion centred in lower Normandy, led by Guy of Burgundy with support from Nigel, Viscount of the Cotentin, and Ranulf, Viscount of the Bessin.
According to stories that may have legendary elements, an attempt was made to seize William at Valognes, but he escaped under cover of darkness, seeking refuge with King Henry.
The period from to saw almost continuous warfare, with lesser crises continuing until William's next efforts were against Guy of Burgundy, who retreated to his castle at Brionne , which William besieged.
After a long effort, the duke succeeded in exiling Guy in They succeeded in capturing an Angevin fortress, but accomplished little else.
Henry's about-face was probably motivated by a desire to retain dominance over Normandy, which was now threatened by William's growing mastery of his duchy.
William met the invasion by dividing his forces into two groups. The first, which he led, faced Henry. The second, which included some who became William's firm supporters, such as Robert, Count of Eu , Walter Giffard , Roger of Mortemer , and William de Warenne , faced the other invading force.
This second force defeated the invaders at the Battle of Mortemer. In addition to ending both invasions, the battle allowed the duke's ecclesiastical supporters to depose Archbishop Mauger.
Mortemer thus marked another turning point in William's growing control of the duchy,  although his conflict with the French king and the Count of Anjou continued until This was the last invasion of Normandy during William's lifetime.
Henry attempted to dislodge William, but the Siege of Thimert dragged on for two years until Henry's death. According to a late source not generally considered to be reliable, papal sanction was not secured until , but as papal-Norman relations in the s were generally good, and Norman clergy were able to visit Rome in without incident, it was probably secured earlier.
No authentic portrait of William has been found; the contemporary depictions of him on the Bayeux Tapestry and on his seals and coins are conventional representations designed to assert his authority.
He enjoyed excellent health until old age, although he became quite fat in later life. There are records of two tutors for William during the late s and early s, but the extent of his literary education is unclear.
He was not known as a patron of authors, and there is little evidence that he sponsored scholarship or other intellectual activities.
Medieval writers criticised William for his greed and cruelty, but his personal piety was universally praised by contemporaries.
Norman government under William was similar to the government that had existed under earlier dukes. It was a fairly simple administrative system, built around the ducal household,  which consisted of a group of officers including stewards , butlers , and marshalls.
This income was collected by the chamber, one of the household departments. William cultivated close relations with the church in his duchy.
He took part in church councils and made several appointments to the Norman episcopate, including the appointment of Maurilius as Archbishop of Rouen.
William gave generously to the church;  from to , the Norman aristocracy founded at least 20 new monastic houses, including William's 2 monasteries in Caen, a remarkable expansion of religious life in the duchy.
In the childless King Edward of England appears to have chosen William as his successor. Whatever Edward's wishes, it was likely that any claim by William would be opposed by Godwin, Earl of Wessex , a member of the most powerful family in England.
It was during this exile that Edward offered the throne to William. Count Herbert II of Maine died in , and William, who had betrothed his eldest son Robert to Herbert's sister Margaret, claimed the county through his son.
Local nobles resisted the claim, but William invaded and by had secured control of the area. In William invaded Brittany in a campaign that remains obscure in its details.
Its effect, though, was to destabilise Brittany, forcing the duke, Conan II , to focus on internal problems rather than on expansion.
Conan's death in further secured William's borders in Normandy. William also benefited from his campaign in Brittany by securing the support of some Breton nobles who went on to support the invasion of England in In England, Earl Godwin died in and his sons were increasing in power: Harold succeeded to his father's earldom, and another son, Tostig , became Earl of Northumbria.
Other sons were granted earldoms later: Gyrth as Earl of East Anglia in and Leofwine as Earl of Kent some time between and It may have been Norman propaganda designed to discredit Harold, who had emerged as the main contender to succeed King Edward.
In Northumbria revolted against Tostig, and the rebels chose Morcar , the younger brother of Edwin, Earl of Mercia , as earl in place of Tostig.
Harold, perhaps to secure the support of Edwin and Morcar in his bid for the throne, supported the rebels and persuaded King Edward to replace Tostig with Morcar.
Edward was ailing, and he died on 5 January It is unclear what exactly happened at Edward's deathbed.
The Norman sources do not dispute the fact that Harold was named as the next king, but they declare that Harold's oath and Edward's earlier promise of the throne could not be changed on Edward's deathbed.
Later English sources stated that Harold had been elected as king by the clergy and magnates of England. Harold was crowned on 6 January in Edward's new Norman-style Westminster Abbey , although some controversy surrounds who performed the ceremony.
English sources claim that Ealdred , the Archbishop of York , performed the ceremony, while Norman sources state that the coronation was performed by Stigand, who was considered a non-canonical archbishop by the papacy.
Harold's brother Tostig made probing attacks along the southern coast of England in May , landing at the Isle of Wight using a fleet supplied by Baldwin of Flanders.
Tostig appears to have received little local support, and further raids into Lincolnshire and near the River Humber met with no more success, so he retreated to Scotland, where he remained for a time.
Harold assembled an army and a fleet to repel William's anticipated invasion force, deploying troops and ships along the English Channel for most of the summer.
William of Poitiers describes a council called by Duke William, in which the writer gives an account of a great debate that took place between William's nobles and supporters over whether to risk an invasion of England.
Although some sort of formal assembly probably was held, it is unlikely that any debate took place, as the duke had by then established control over his nobles, and most of those assembled would have been anxious to secure their share of the rewards from the conquest of England.
Henry was still a minor, however, and Sweyn was more likely to support Harold, who could then help Sweyn against the Norwegian king, so these claims should be treated with caution.
Although Alexander did give papal approval to the conquest after it succeeded, no other source claims papal support prior to the invasion.
To deal with Norman affairs, William put the government of Normandy into the hands of his wife for the duration of the invasion. Throughout the summer, William assembled an army and an invasion fleet in Normandy.
The fleet carried an invasion force that included, in addition to troops from William's own territories of Normandy and Maine, large numbers of mercenaries, allies, and volunteers from Brittany , northeastern France, and Flanders, together with smaller numbers from other parts of Europe.
Although the army and fleet were ready by early August, adverse winds kept the ships in Normandy until late September. There were probably other reasons for William's delay, including intelligence reports from England revealing that Harold's forces were deployed along the coast.
William would have preferred to delay the invasion until he could make an unopposed landing. King Harold received word of their invasion and marched north, defeating the invaders and killing Tostig and Hardrada on 25 September at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
William then moved to Hastings , a few miles to the east, where he built a castle as a base of operations.
From there, he ravaged the interior and waited for Harold's return from the north, refusing to venture far from the sea, his line of communication with Normandy.
After defeating Harald Hardrada and Tostig, Harold left much of his army in the north, including Morcar and Edwin, and marched the rest south to deal with the threatened Norman invasion.
Harold stopped in London, and was there for about a week before marching to Hastings, so it is likely that he spent about a week on his march south, averaging about 27 miles 43 kilometres per day,  for the distance of approximately miles kilometres.
The exact events preceding the battle are obscure, with contradictory accounts in the sources, but all agree that William led his army from his castle and advanced towards the enemy.
Some of William's Breton troops panicked and fled, and some of the English troops appear to have pursued the fleeing Bretons until they themselves were attacked and destroyed by Norman cavalry.
During the Bretons' flight, rumours swept through the Norman forces that the duke had been killed, but William succeeded in rallying his troops.
Two further Norman retreats were feigned, to once again draw the English into pursuit and expose them to repeated attacks by the Norman cavalry. The Bayeux Tapestry has been claimed to show Harold's death by an arrow to the eye, but that may be a later reworking of the tapestry to conform to 12th-century stories in which Harold was slain by an arrow wound to the head.
Harold's body was identified the day after the battle, either through his armour or marks on his body. The English dead, who included some of Harold's brothers and his housecarls , were left on the battlefield.
Gytha, Harold's mother, offered the victorious duke the weight of her son's body in gold for its custody, but her offer was refused.
Waltham Abbey , which had been founded by Harold, later claimed that his body had been secretly buried there. William may have hoped the English would surrender following his victory, but they did not.
After waiting a short while, William secured Dover , parts of Kent, and Canterbury , while also sending a force to capture Winchester , where the royal treasury was.
Next he led his forces around the south and west of London, burning along the way. He finally crossed the Thames at Wallingford in early December.
William then sent forces into London to construct a castle; he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day William remained in England after his coronation and tried to reconcile the native magnates.
Ecclesiastical offices continued to be held by the same bishops as before the invasion, including the uncanonical Stigand. He left his half-brother Odo, the Bishop of Bayeux, in charge of England along with another influential supporter, William fitzOsbern , the son of his former guardian.
English resistance had also begun, with Eadric the Wild attacking Hereford and revolts at Exeter , where Harold's mother Gytha was a focus of resistance.
The town held out for 18 days, and after it fell to William he built a castle to secure his control. Harold's sons were meanwhile raiding the southwest of England from a base in Ireland.
Their forces landed near Bristol but were defeated by Eadnoth. By Easter, William was at Winchester, where he was soon joined by his wife Matilda, who was crowned in May The chronicler Orderic Vitalis states that Edwin's reason for revolting was that the proposed marriage between himself and one of William's daughters had not taken place, but another reason probably included the increasing power of fitzOsbern in Herefordshire, which affected Edwin's power within his own earldom.
The king marched through Edwin's lands and built Warwick Castle. Edwin and Morcar submitted, but William continued on to York, building York and Nottingham Castles before returning south.
On his southbound journey, he began constructing Lincoln , Huntingdon , and Cambridge Castles. Then the king returned to Normandy late in Although William returned to York and built another castle, Edgar remained free, and in the autumn he joined up with King Sweyn.
York was captured by the combined forces of Edgar and Sweyn. Edgar was proclaimed king by his supporters. William responded swiftly, ignoring a continental revolt in Maine, and symbolically wore his crown in the ruins of York on Christmas Day He then proceeded to buy off the Danes.
He marched to the River Tees , ravaging the countryside as he went. But William was not finished; he marched over the Pennines during the winter and defeated the remaining rebels at Shrewsbury before building Chester and Stafford Castles.
This campaign, which included the burning and destruction of part of the countryside that the royal forces marched through, is usually known as the " Harrying of the North "; it was over by April , when William wore his crown ceremonially for Easter at Winchester.
The legates ceremonially crowned William during the Easter court. Some of the native abbots were also deposed, both at the council held near Easter and at a further one near Whitsun.
The Whitsun council saw the appointment of Lanfranc as the new Archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas of Bayeux as the new Archbishop of York, to replace Ealdred, who had died in September Although Sweyn had promised to leave England, he returned in spring , raiding along the Humber and East Anglia toward the Isle of Ely , where he joined up with Hereward the Wake , a local thegn.
Hereward's forces attacked Peterborough Abbey , which they captured and looted. William was able to secure the departure of Sweyn and his fleet in ,  allowing him to return to the continent to deal with troubles in Maine, where the town of Le Mans had revolted in Another concern was the death of Count Baldwin VI of Flanders in July , which led to a succession crisis as his widow, Richilde , was ruling for their two young sons, Arnulf and Baldwin.
Her rule, however, was contested by Robert , Baldwin's brother. Richilde proposed marriage to William fitzOsbern, who was in Normandy, and fitzOsbern accepted.
But after he was killed in February at the Battle of Cassel , Robert became count. He was opposed to King William's power on the continent, thus the Battle of Cassel upset the balance of power in northern France in addition to costing William an important supporter.
In William defeated the last rebellion of the north. Earl Edwin was betrayed by his own men and killed, while William built a causeway to subdue the Isle of Ely, where Hereward the Wake and Morcar were hiding.
Hereward escaped, but Morcar was captured, deprived of his earldom, and imprisoned. In William invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm, who had recently invaded the north of England.
William and Malcolm agreed to peace by signing the Treaty of Abernethy , and Malcolm probably gave up his son Duncan as a hostage for the peace.
With a swift campaign, William seized Le Mans from Fulk's forces, completing the campaign by 30 March William returned to England to release his army from service in but quickly returned to Normandy, where he spent all of The French king, seeking a focus for those opposed to William's power, then proposed that Edgar be given the castle of Montreuil-sur-Mer on the Channel, which would have given Edgar a strategic advantage against William.
The exact reason for the rebellion is unclear, but it was launched at the wedding of Ralph to a relative of Roger, held at Exning in Suffolk. Waltheof, the earl of Northumbria, although one of William's favourites, was also involved, and there were some Breton lords who were ready to rebel in support of Ralph and Roger.
Ralph also requested Danish aid. William remained in Normandy while his men in England subdued the revolt.
Ralph eventually left Norwich in the control of his wife and left England, finally ending up in Brittany.
Norwich was besieged and surrendered, with the garrison allowed to go to Brittany. Meanwhile, the Danish king's brother, Cnut , had finally arrived in England with a fleet of ships, but he was too late as Norwich had already surrendered.
The Danes then raided along the coast before returning home. He celebrated Christmas at Winchester and dealt with the aftermath of the rebellion.
Before this, William had returned to the continent, where Ralph had continued the rebellion from Brittany.
Earl Ralph had secured control of the castle at Dol , and in September William advanced into Brittany and laid siege to the castle.
King Philip of France later relieved the siege and defeated William at the Battle of Dol , forcing him to retreat back to Normandy. Although this was William's first defeat in battle, it did little to change things.
An Angevin attack on Maine was defeated in late or , with Count Fulk le Rechin wounded in the unsuccessful attack. Before he became a monk, Simon handed his county of the Vexin over to King Philip.
The Vexin was a buffer state between Normandy and the lands of the French king, and Simon had been a supporter of William.
In late or early trouble began between William and his eldest son, Robert. Although Orderic Vitalis describes it as starting with a quarrel between Robert and his two younger brothers, William and Henry , including a story that the quarrel was started when William and Henry threw water at Robert, it is much more likely that Robert was feeling powerless.
Orderic relates that he had previously demanded control of Maine and Normandy and had been rebuffed. The trouble in or resulted in Robert leaving Normandy accompanied by a band of young men, many of them the sons of William's supporters.
This band of young men went to the castle at Remalard , where they proceeded to raid into Normandy. The raiders were supported by many of William's continental enemies.
William then laid siege to Gerberoi in January After three weeks, the besieged forces sallied from the castle and managed to take the besiegers by surprise.
William was unhorsed by Robert and was only saved from death by an Englishman, Toki son of Wigod, who was himself killed. By 12 April , William and Robert had reached an accommodation, with William once more affirming that Robert would receive Normandy when he died.
Word of William's defeat at Gerberoi stirred up difficulties in northern England. The lack of Norman response appears to have caused the Northumbrians to grow restive, and in the spring of they rebelled against the rule of William Walcher , the Bishop of Durham and Earl of Northumbria.
Walcher was killed on 14 May , and the king dispatched his half-brother Odo to deal with the rebellion.
Robert raided into Lothian and forced Malcolm to agree to terms, building a fortification at Newcastle-on-Tyne while returning to England.
A papal embassy arrived in England during this period, asking that William do fealty for England to the papacy, a request that he rejected.
William's biographer David Bates argues that the former explanation is more likely, explaining that the balance of power had recently shifted in Wales and that William would have wished to take advantage of the changed circumstances to extend Norman power.
By the end of , William was back on the continent, dealing with disturbances in Maine. Although he led an expedition into Maine, the result was instead a negotiated settlement arranged by a papal legate.
Sources for William's actions between and are meagre. According to the historian David Bates, this probably means that little happened of note, and that because William was on the continent, there was nothing for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to record.
The exact reasons are unclear, as no contemporary author recorded what caused the quarrel between the half-brothers. Orderic Vitalis later recorded that Odo had aspirations to become pope.
Orderic also related that Odo had attempted to persuade some of William's vassals to join Odo on an invasion of southern Italy. This would have been considered tampering with the king's authority over his vassals, which William would not have tolerated.
Although Odo remained in confinement for the rest of William's reign, his lands were not confiscated. More difficulties struck in , when William's son Robert rebelled once more with support from the French king.
A further blow was the death of Queen Matilda on 2 November William was always described as close to his wife, and her death would have added to his problems.
Maine continued to be difficult, with a rebellion by Hubert de Beaumont-au-Maine , probably in Hubert was besieged in his castle at Sainte-Suzanne by William's forces for at least two years, but he eventually made his peace with the king and was restored to favour.
Although English and Norman forces remained on alert throughout and into , the invasion threat was ended by Cnut's death in July These fortifications allowed Normans to retreat into safety when threatened with rebellion and allowed garrisons to be protected while they occupied the countryside.
The early castles were simple earth and timber constructions, later replaced with stone structures. At first, most of the newly settled Normans kept household knights and did not settle their retainers with fiefs of their own, but gradually these household knights came to be granted lands of their own, a process known as subinfeudation.
William also required his newly created magnates to contribute fixed quotas of knights towards not only military campaigns but also castle garrisons.
This method of organising the military forces was a departure from the pre-Conquest English practice of basing military service on territorial units such as the hide.
By William's death, after weathering a series of rebellions, most of the native Anglo-Saxon aristocracy had been replaced by Norman and other continental magnates.
Not all of the Normans who accompanied William in the initial conquest acquired large amounts of land in England.
Some appear to have been reluctant to take up lands in a kingdom that did not always appear pacified. He lay dying in the priory of St. Gervais near Rouen for five weeks before finally expiring on September 9, William was the elder of the two children of Robert I of Normandy and his concubine Herleva also called Arlette, the daughter of a tanner or undertaker from the town of Falaise.
In Robert died while returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem , and William, his only son, whom he had nominated as his heir before his departure, was accepted as duke by the Norman magnates and by his overlord, King Henry I of France.
His weakness led to a breakdown of authority throughout the duchy: private castles were erected, public power was usurped by lesser nobles, and private warfare broke out.
His mother, however, managed to protect him through the most dangerous period. By , when William reached his 15th year, was knighted , and began to play a personal part in the affairs of his duchy, the worst was over.
But his attempts to recover rights lost during the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servants to heel inevitably led to trouble.
From until he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by his kinsmen. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help, but it was during these years that William learned to fight and rule.
William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calculated risks on campaign and to fight a battle, but he was not a flamboyant commander.
His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he ruthlessly exploited any opportunity. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately.
He showed the same qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost ducal rights and revenues, and, although he developed no theory of government or great interest in administrative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment.
He was moral and pious by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest in the welfare of the Norman church. He made his half brother Odo bishop of Bayeux in at the age of about 16; as bishop, Odo combined the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way that did not greatly shock contemporaries.
Although Odo and the other bishops appointed by William were not recognized for their spirituality, they strengthened the church in Normandy by their pious donations and administrative skill.
Presiding over numerous church councils, William and his bishops passed important legislation against simony the selling of church offices and clerical marriage.
He also welcomed foreign monks and scholars to Normandy, including Lanfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts , who entered the monastery of Bec about and was made abbot of Caen inDie wichtigsten Männer der Normandie leisteten ihm den Treueeid. Da sich die Aufmerksamkeit notgedrungen auf England gerichtet hatte, ergab sich für Philipp eine günstige Gelegenheit, Wimmelbilder Deutsch Kostenlos Spielen kriegerischen Aktivitäten in Frankreich wieder aufzunehmen. Bei seinen Gerichtssitzungen war ein gälischer Richter zumindest als Zeuge anwesend, doch für die Rechtsprechung orientierte Machine Slots Free Wilhelm an der anglonormannischen Rechtspraxis, vor allen an den erlassenen Assisen von Clarendon  oder am von Hubert Walter proklamierten Landfriedenden Wilhelm auf Schottland übertrug. Reference lists Add a list of references from, and to record detail William I. Doch trotz alledem blieb Wilhelms Lage ungewiss; fast alle seine Beschützer kamen gewaltsam ums Leben. Nun schien dieses Ziel Paysafecard Registrieren, und der sterbende König muss es als letzte Niederlage empfunden haben. Um England eine ähnliche Verwaltung zu geben, errichtete er ebenfalls eine Zentralverwaltung und besetzte zahlreiche wichtige Positionen mit Normannen.