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A fault is a serve that falls long or wide of the service box, or does not clear the net. There is also a "foot fault" when a player's foot touches the baseline or an extension of the center mark before the ball is hit.

If the second service, after a fault, is also a fault, the server double faults, and the receiver wins the point. However, if the serve is in, it is considered a legal service.

A legal service starts a rally , in which the players alternate hitting the ball across the net. A legal return consists of a player hitting the ball so that it falls in the server's court, before it has bounced twice or hit any fixtures except the net.

A player or team cannot hit the ball twice in a row. The ball must travel over the net into the other players' court. A ball that hits the net during a rally is considered a legal return as long as it crosses into the opposite side of the court.

The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point. The server then moves to the other side of the service line at the start of a new point.

A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving. A game is won by the first player to have won at least four points in total and at least two points more than the opponent.

The running score of each game is described in a manner peculiar to tennis: scores from zero to three points are described as " love ", " 15 ", " 30 ", and " 40 ", respectively.

If at least three points have been scored by each player, making the player's scores equal at 40 apiece, the score is not called out as "40—40", but rather as " deuce ".

If at least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one more point than his opponent, the score of the game is " advantage " for the player in the lead.

During informal games, " advantage " can also be called " ad in " or " van in " when the serving player is ahead, and " ad out " or " van out " when the receiving player is ahead; alternatively, either player may simply call out " my ad " or " your ad " during informal play.

The score of a tennis game during play is always read with the serving player's score first. In tournament play, the chair umpire calls the point count e.

At the end of a game, the chair umpire also announces the winner of the game and the overall score. A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria.

Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games and at least two games more than the opponent. If one player has won six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played.

If the leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7—5. If the trailing player wins the game tying the set 6—6 a tie-break is played.

A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7—6.

A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the US.

The final score in sets is always read with the winning player's score first, e. A match consists of a sequence of sets. The outcome is determined through a best of three or five sets system.

On the professional circuit, men play best-of-five-set matches at all four Grand Slam tournaments, Davis Cup, and the final of the Olympic Games and best-of-three-set matches at all other tournaments, while women play best-of-three-set matches at all tournaments.

The first player to win two sets in a best-of-three, or three sets in a best-of-five, wins the match. In these cases, sets are played indefinitely until one player has a two-game lead, occasionally leading to some remarkably long matches.

In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the end of the match with the well-known phrase " Game, set, match " followed by the winning person's or team's name.

A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead in the game needs only one more point to win the game.

The terminology is extended to sets set point , matches match point , and even championships championship point. For example, if the player who is serving has a score of love, the player has a triple game point triple set point, etc.

Game points, set points, and match points are not part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in tournament play.

A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server , has a chance to win the game with the next point. Break points are of particular importance because serving is generally considered advantageous, with servers being expected to win games in which they are serving.

A receiver who has one score of 30—40 or advantage , two score of 15—40 or three score of love consecutive chances to win the game has break point , double break point or triple break point , respectively.

If the receiver does, in fact, win their break point, the game is awarded to the receiver, and the receiver is said to have converted their break point.

If the receiver fails to win their break point it is called a failure to convert. Winning break points, and thus the game, is also referred to as breaking serve , as the receiver has disrupted, or broken the natural advantage of the server.

If in the following game the previous server also wins a break point it is referred to as breaking back. Except where tie-breaks apply, at least one break of serve is required to win a set otherwise a two-game lead would never occur.

Another, however informal, tennis format is called Canadian doubles. This involves three players, with one person playing against a doubles team.

The single player gets to utilize the alleys normally reserved only for a doubles team. Conversely, the doubles team does not use the alleys when executing a shot.

The scoring is the same as for a regular game. This format is not sanctioned by any official body. As such, each player plays doubles and singles over the course of a match, with the singles player always serving.

Scoring styles vary, but one popular method is to assign a value of 2 points to each game, with the server taking both points if he or she holds serve and the doubles team each taking one if they break serve.

Wheelchair tennis can be played by able-bodied players as well as people who require a wheelchair for mobility. An extra bounce is permitted.

This rule makes it possible to have mixed wheelchair and able-bodied matches. It is possible for a doubles team to consist of a wheelchair player and an able-bodied player referred to as "one-up, one-down" , or for a wheelchair player to play against an able-bodied player.

In such cases, the extra bounce is permitted for the wheelchair users only. In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an officiating head judge or chair umpire usually referred to simply as the umpire , who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court.

The umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball has landed within the required part of the court and who also call foot faults.

There also may be a net judge who determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to overrule a line judge or a net judge if the umpire is sure that a clear mistake has been made.

In past tournaments, line judges tasked with calling the serve were sometimes assisted by electronic sensors that beeped to indicate an out-of-bounds serve; one such system was called " Cyclops ".

The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the tennis rules were violated question of law but may not change the umpire's decision on a question of fact.

If, however, the referee is on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision. This would only happen in Davis Cup or Fed Cup matches, not at the World Group level, when a chair umpire from a non-neutral country is in the chair.

Ball boys and girls may be employed to retrieve balls, pass them to the players, and hand players their towels. They have no adjudicative role.

In rare events e. The umpire may consider their statements when making a decision. In some leagues, especially junior leagues, players make their own calls, trusting each other to be honest.

This is the case for many school and university level matches. The referee or referee's assistant, however, can be called on court at a player's request, and the referee or assistant may change a player's call.

In unofficiated matches, a ball is out only if the player entitled to make the call is sure that the ball is out. In tennis, a junior is a player under 18 who is still legally protected by a parent or guardian.

Players on the main adult tour who are under 18 must have documents signed by a parent or guardian. These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments.

Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit.

The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. In , the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings singles and doubles into one combined tally.

Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.

Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age.

To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system.

Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play. Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions.

A tennis match is intended to be continuous. In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of the previous point.

Should a player be deemed to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.

In the event of a rain delay, darkness or other external conditions halting play, the match is resumed at a later time, with the same score as at the time of the delay, and each player at the same end of the court as when rain halted play, or as close to the same relative compass point if play is resumed on a different court.

Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up.

An exception is that a ball change may not take place at the beginning of a tiebreaker, in which case the ball change is delayed until the beginning of the second game of the next set.

Continuity of the balls' condition is considered part of the game, so if a re-warm-up is required after an extended break in play usually due to rain , then the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the match balls is resumed only when play resumes.

A recent rule change is to allow coaching on court on a limited basis during a match. Stance refers to the way a player prepares themselves in order to best be able to return a shot.

Essentially, it enables them to move quickly in order to achieve a particular stroke. There are four main stances in modern tennis: open, semi-open, closed, and neutral.

All four stances involve the player crouching in some manner: as well as being a more efficient striking posture, it allows them to isometrically preload their muscles in order to play the stroke more dynamically.

What stance is selected is strongly influenced by shot selection. A player may quickly alter their stance depending on the circumstances and the type of shot they intend to play.

Any given stance also alters dramatically based upon the actual playing of the shot with dynamic movements and shifts of body weight occurring.

This is the most common stance in tennis. They may be pointing sideways, directly at the net or diagonally towards it.

This stance allows for a high degree of torso rotation which can add significant power to the stroke. This process is sometimes likened to the coiling and uncoiling of a spring.

When the stroke is played the torso rotates to face forwards again, called uncoiling, and adds significant power to the stroke.

It is commonly used for forehand strokes; double-handed backhands can also be made effectively from it. This stance is somewhere between open and closed and is a very flexible stance.

The feet are aligned diagonally towards the net. It allows for a lot of shoulder rotation and the torso can be coiled, before being uncoiled into the shot in order to increase the power of the shot.

The closed stance is the least commonly used of the three main stances. One foot is placed further towards the net with the other foot further from it; there is a diagonal alignment between the feet.

It allows for effective torso rotation in order to increase the power of the shot. It is usually used to play backhand shots and it is rare to see forehand shots played from it.

A stroke from this stance may entail the rear foot coming completely off the floor with bodyweight being transferred entirely to the front foot.

This is sometimes also referred to as the square stance. One foot is positioned closer to the net and ahead of the other which is behind and in line with it.

Both feet are aligned at a 90 degree angle to the net. A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: the serve, forehand, backhand, volley, half-volley, overhead smash, drop shot, and lob.

A grip is a way of holding the racket in order to hit shots during a match. The grip affects the angle of the racket face when it hits the ball and influences the pace, spin, and placement of the shot.

Players use various grips during play, including the Continental The "Handshake Grip" , Eastern Can be either semi-eastern or full eastern. Usually used for backhands.

Most players change grips during a match depending on what shot they are hitting; for example, slice shots and serves call for a Continental grip.

A serve or, more formally, a "service" in tennis is a shot to start a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it usually near the apex of its trajectory into the diagonally opposite service box without touching the net.

The serve may be hit under- or overhand although underhand serving remains a rarity. There can also be a let if the server serves the ball and the receiver isn't prepared.

Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve to maximize its power and placement. The server may employ different types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve, and kick American twist serve.

A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server, the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness.

If the ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise.

Some servers are content to use the serve simply to initiate the point; however, advanced players often try to hit a winning shot with their serve.

A winning serve that is not touched by the opponent is called an "ace". For a right-handed player, the forehand is a stroke that begins on the right side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the left side of the body.

There are various grips for executing the forehand, and their popularity has fluctuated over the years. The most important ones are the continental , the eastern , the semi-western , and the western.

For a number of years, the small, frail s player Bill Johnston was considered by many to have had the best forehand of all time, a stroke that he hit shoulder-high using a western grip.

Few top players used the western grip after the s, but in the latter part of the 20th century, as shot-making techniques and equipment changed radically, the western forehand made a strong comeback and is now used by many modern players.

No matter which grip is used, most forehands are generally executed with one hand holding the racket, but there have been fine players with two-handed forehands.

Players such as Monica Seles or France's Fabrice Santoro and Marion Bartoli are also notable players known for their two-handed forehands.

For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body.

It can be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally considered more difficult to master than the forehand.

For most of the 20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either an eastern or a continental grip.

The first notable players to use two hands were the s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich , but they were lonely exceptions.

The two-handed grip gained popularity in the s as Björn Borg , Chris Evert , Jimmy Connors , and later Mats Wilander and Marat Safin used it to great effect, and it is now used by a large number of the world's best players, including Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams.

Two hands give the player more control, while one hand can generate a slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory bounce.

Reach is also limited with the two-handed shot. The player long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge , had a powerful one-handed stroke in the s and s that imparted topspin onto the ball.

Ken Rosewall , another player noted for his one-handed backhand, used a very accurate slice backhand through the s and s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles , use two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides.

A volley is a shot returned to the opponent in mid-air before the ball bounces, generally performed near the net, and is usually made with a stiff-wristed punching motion to hit the ball into an open area of the opponent's court.

The half volley is made by hitting the ball on the rise just after it has bounced, also generally in the vicinity of the net, and played with the racket close to the ground.

It is an offensive shot used to take preparation time away from the opponent, as it returns the ball into the opponent's court much faster than a standard volley.

From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it over the opponent's head.

If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the other court, however, an opponent near the net may then hit an overhead smash , a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point.

A difficult shot in tennis is the return of an attempted lob over the backhand side of a player. When the contact point is higher than the reach of a two-handed backhand, most players will try to execute a high slice under the ball or sideways.

Fewer players attempt the backhand sky-hook or smash. Rarely, a player will go for a high topspin backhand, while themselves in the air.

A successful execution of any of these alternatives requires balance and timing, with less margin of error than the lower contact point backhands, since this shot is a break in the regular pattern of play.

If an opponent is deep in his court, a player may suddenly employ an unexpected drop shot , by softly tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run in fast enough to retrieve it.

Advanced players will often apply back spin to a drop shot, causing the ball to "skid" upon landing and bounce sideways, with less forward momentum toward their opponent, or even backwards towards the net, thus making it even more difficult to return.

Muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in tennis. Muscle , cartilage , nerves , bursae , ligaments and tendons may be damaged from overuse.

The repetitive use of a particular muscle without time for repair and recovery is the most common cause of injury. Tournaments are often organized by gender and number of players.

Common tournament configurations include men's singles, women's singles, and doubles, where two players play on each side of the net.

Tournaments may be organized for specific age groups, with upper age limits for youth and lower age limits for senior players.

There are also tournaments for players with disabilities, such as wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis. Most large tournaments seed players, but players may also be matched by their skill level.

According to how well a person does in sanctioned play, a player is given a rating that is adjusted periodically to maintain competitive matches.

Average club players under this system would rate 3. The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most prestigious tennis events in the world.

Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Masters men and Premier events women.

There are , more than any other professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top , qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards.

Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play best-of-three. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters and the Miami Masters.

Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests. Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis competitions.

These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies. For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly white.

Andre Agassi chose to skip Wimbledon from through citing the event's traditionalism, particularly its "predominantly white" dress code. Each event is held annually, and a win at one of these events is worth ranking points.

When the ATP , led by Hamilton Jordan , began running the men's tour in , the directors designated the top nine tournaments, outside of the Grand Slam events, as "Super 9" events.

In November at the end of the tennis year, the world's top eight players compete in the ATP World Tour Finals , a tournament with a rotating locale.

It is currently held in London, England. In August the ATP announced major changes to the tour that were introduced in The Masters Series was renamed to the "Masters ", the addition of the number referring to the number of ranking points earned by the winner of each tournament.

Contrary to earlier plans, the number of tournaments was not reduced from nine to eight and the Monte Carlo Masters remains part of the series although, unlike the other events, it does not have a mandatory player commitment.

The Hamburg Masters has been downgraded to a point event. The Madrid Masters moved to May and onto clay courts, and a new tournament in Shanghai took over Madrid's former indoor October slot.

It is mandatory for leading players to enter at least four events, including at least one after the US Open. It is composed of about events and, as a result, features a more diverse range of countries hosting events.

These tournaments also contribute towards a player's ATP rankings points. Premier events for women form the most prestigious level of events on the Women's Tennis Association Tour after the Grand Slam tournaments.

These events offer the largest rewards in terms of points and prize money. The Premier events were introduced in replacing the previous Tier I and II tournament categories.

Currently four tournaments are Premier Mandatory, five tournaments are Premier 5, and twelve tournaments are Premier. The first tiering system in women's tennis was introduced in International tournaments are the second main tier of the WTA tour and consist of 31 tournaments, with a prize money for every event at U.

Professional tennis players enjoy the same relative perks as most top sports personalities: clothing, equipment and endorsements.

Like players of other individual sports such as golf, they are not salaried, but must play and finish highly in tournaments to obtain prize money.

In recent years, some controversy has surrounded the involuntary or deliberate noise caused by players' grunting. While players are gradually less competitive in singles by their late 20s and early 30s, they can still continue competitively in doubles as instanced by Martina Navratilova and John McEnroe , who won doubles titles in their 40s.

In the Open Era, several female players such as Martina Navratilova , Margaret Court , Martina Hingis , Serena Williams , and Venus Williams the latter two sisters playing together have been prolific at both singles and doubles events throughout their careers.

John McEnroe is one of the very few professional male players to be top ranked in both singles and doubles at the same time, [96] [97] [98] and Yevgeny Kafelnikov is the most recent male player to win multiple Grand Slams in both singles and doubles during the same period of his career.

In terms of public attention and earnings see below , singles champions have far surpassed their doubles counterparts.

The Open Era, particularly the men's side, has seen many top-ranked singles players that only sparingly compete in doubles, while having "doubles specialists" who are typically being eliminated early in the singles draw but do well in the doubles portion of a tournament.

Woodbridge noted that while top singles players earn enough that they don't need to nor want to play doubles, he suggested that lower-ranked singles players outside the Top Ten should play doubles to earn more playing time and money.

The Olympics doubles tennis tournament necessitates that both members of a doubles pairing be from the same country, hence several top professional pairs such as Jamie Murray and Bruno Soares cannot compete in the Olympics.

Top-ranked singles players that are usually rivals on the professional circuit, such as Boris Becker and Michael Stich , and Roger Federer and Stan Wawrinka have formed a rare doubles partnership for the Olympics.

Unlike professional tennis tournaments see below where singles players receive much more prize money than doubles players, an Olympic medal for both singles and doubles has similar prestige.

The Olympics is more of a priority for doubles champions while singles champions often skip the tournament. For the Olympics , Lisa Raymond was passed over for Team USA in favor of Serena Williams by captain Billie Jean King , even though Raymond was the top-ranked doubles player in the world at the time, and Raymond unsuccessfully challenged the selection.

In professional tennis tournaments such as Wimbledon , the singles competition receives the most prize money and coverage, followed by doubles, and then mixed doubles usually receive the lowest monetary awards.

The following players have won at least five singles titles at Grand Slam tournaments :. A frequent topic of discussion among tennis fans and commentators is who was the greatest male singles player of all time.

By a large margin, an Associated Press poll in named Bill Tilden as the greatest player of the first half of the 20th century.

Championships seven times. In , however, Donald Budge became the first person to win all four major singles titles during the same calendar year, the Grand Slam , and won six consecutive major titles in and Tilden called Budge "the finest player days a year that ever lived.

Kramer was among the few who dominated amateur and professional tennis during the late s and early s. Tony Trabert has said that of the players he saw before the start of the Open Era , Kramer was the best male champion.

Budge reportedly believed that Gonzales was the greatest player ever. I think his game was the best game ever. Better than mine. He was capable of making more shots than anybody.

His two volleys were great. His overhead was enormous. He had the most natural tennis mind with the most natural tennis physique.

Before and during the Open Era, Rod Laver remains the only male player in history to have won the calendar year Grand Slam twice in and [] and also the calendar year Professional Grand Slam in Andre Agassi , the first of two male players in history to have achieved a Career Golden Slam in singles tennis followed by Rafael Nadal , has been called the best service returner in the history of the game.

By the early twenty-first century, Roger Federer is considered by many observers to have the most "complete" game in modern tennis.

He has won 20 grand slam titles and 6 World Tour Finals, the most for any male player. Many experts of tennis, former tennis players and his own tennis peers believe Federer is the greatest player in the history of the game.

As with the men there are frequent discussions about who is the greatest female singles player of all time with Steffi Graf , Martina Navratilova and Serena Williams being the three players most often nominated.

In March the TennisChannel published a combined list of the greatest men and women tennis players of all time. The rankings were determined by an international panel.

Sportswriter John Wertheim of Sports Illustrated stated in an article in July that Serena Williams is the greatest female tennis player ever with the argument that "Head-to-head, on a neutral surface i.

Steffi Graf is considered by some to be the greatest female player. Billie Jean King said in , "Steffi is definitely the greatest women's tennis player of all time.

Tennis magazine selected Martina Navratilova as the greatest female tennis player for the years through From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Tennis disambiguation. Ball sport with racket and net. Roger Federer hitting a backhanded shot in Main article: History of tennis.

Main article: Tennis technology. Main article: Tennis ball. For individual terms, see Glossary of tennis terms. Main article: Tennis court.

Main article: Point tennis. Main article: Tennis scoring system. For software term, see Breakpoint. See also: Types of tennis match.

Main article: Official tennis. Main article: Junior tennis. Main article: Tennis shots. Main article: Grip Tennis.

Main article: Serve tennis. Main article: Forehand. Main article: Backhand. Main article: Tennis injuries.

See also: List of tennis tournaments. See also: Lists of tennis records and statistics. Further information: Tennis male players statistics and World number one male tennis player rankings.

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Report Game. Send Feedback Help. These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments. Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit.

The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. In , the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings singles and doubles into one combined tally.

Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.

Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age.

To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system.

Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play. Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions.

A tennis match is intended to be continuous. In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of the previous point.

Should a player be deemed to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.

In the event of a rain delay, darkness or other external conditions halting play, the match is resumed at a later time, with the same score as at the time of the delay, and each player at the same end of the court as when rain halted play, or as close to the same relative compass point if play is resumed on a different court.

Balls wear out quickly in serious play and, therefore, in ATP and WTA tournaments, they are changed after every nine games with the first change occurring after only seven games, because the first set of balls is also used for the pre-match warm-up.

An exception is that a ball change may not take place at the beginning of a tiebreaker, in which case the ball change is delayed until the beginning of the second game of the next set.

Continuity of the balls' condition is considered part of the game, so if a re-warm-up is required after an extended break in play usually due to rain , then the re-warm-up is done using a separate set of balls, and use of the match balls is resumed only when play resumes.

A recent rule change is to allow coaching on court on a limited basis during a match. Stance refers to the way a player prepares themselves in order to best be able to return a shot.

Essentially, it enables them to move quickly in order to achieve a particular stroke. There are four main stances in modern tennis: open, semi-open, closed, and neutral.

All four stances involve the player crouching in some manner: as well as being a more efficient striking posture, it allows them to isometrically preload their muscles in order to play the stroke more dynamically.

What stance is selected is strongly influenced by shot selection. A player may quickly alter their stance depending on the circumstances and the type of shot they intend to play.

Any given stance also alters dramatically based upon the actual playing of the shot with dynamic movements and shifts of body weight occurring.

This is the most common stance in tennis. They may be pointing sideways, directly at the net or diagonally towards it.

This stance allows for a high degree of torso rotation which can add significant power to the stroke. This process is sometimes likened to the coiling and uncoiling of a spring.

When the stroke is played the torso rotates to face forwards again, called uncoiling, and adds significant power to the stroke.

It is commonly used for forehand strokes; double-handed backhands can also be made effectively from it. This stance is somewhere between open and closed and is a very flexible stance.

The feet are aligned diagonally towards the net. It allows for a lot of shoulder rotation and the torso can be coiled, before being uncoiled into the shot in order to increase the power of the shot.

The closed stance is the least commonly used of the three main stances. One foot is placed further towards the net with the other foot further from it; there is a diagonal alignment between the feet.

It allows for effective torso rotation in order to increase the power of the shot. It is usually used to play backhand shots and it is rare to see forehand shots played from it.

A stroke from this stance may entail the rear foot coming completely off the floor with bodyweight being transferred entirely to the front foot.

This is sometimes also referred to as the square stance. One foot is positioned closer to the net and ahead of the other which is behind and in line with it.

Both feet are aligned at a 90 degree angle to the net. A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: the serve, forehand, backhand, volley, half-volley, overhead smash, drop shot, and lob.

A grip is a way of holding the racket in order to hit shots during a match. The grip affects the angle of the racket face when it hits the ball and influences the pace, spin, and placement of the shot.

Players use various grips during play, including the Continental The "Handshake Grip" , Eastern Can be either semi-eastern or full eastern.

Usually used for backhands. Most players change grips during a match depending on what shot they are hitting; for example, slice shots and serves call for a Continental grip.

A serve or, more formally, a "service" in tennis is a shot to start a point. The serve is initiated by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it usually near the apex of its trajectory into the diagonally opposite service box without touching the net.

The serve may be hit under- or overhand although underhand serving remains a rarity. There can also be a let if the server serves the ball and the receiver isn't prepared.

Experienced players strive to master the conventional overhand serve to maximize its power and placement. The server may employ different types of serve including flat serve, topspin serve, slice serve, and kick American twist serve.

A reverse type of spin serve is hit in a manner that spins the ball opposite the natural spin of the server, the spin direction depending upon right- or left-handedness.

If the ball is spinning counterclockwise, it will curve right from the hitter's point of view and curve left if spinning clockwise. Some servers are content to use the serve simply to initiate the point; however, advanced players often try to hit a winning shot with their serve.

A winning serve that is not touched by the opponent is called an "ace". For a right-handed player, the forehand is a stroke that begins on the right side of the body, continues across the body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the left side of the body.

There are various grips for executing the forehand, and their popularity has fluctuated over the years. The most important ones are the continental , the eastern , the semi-western , and the western.

For a number of years, the small, frail s player Bill Johnston was considered by many to have had the best forehand of all time, a stroke that he hit shoulder-high using a western grip.

Few top players used the western grip after the s, but in the latter part of the 20th century, as shot-making techniques and equipment changed radically, the western forehand made a strong comeback and is now used by many modern players.

No matter which grip is used, most forehands are generally executed with one hand holding the racket, but there have been fine players with two-handed forehands.

Players such as Monica Seles or France's Fabrice Santoro and Marion Bartoli are also notable players known for their two-handed forehands.

For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body.

It can be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally considered more difficult to master than the forehand.

For most of the 20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either an eastern or a continental grip. The first notable players to use two hands were the s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich , but they were lonely exceptions.

The two-handed grip gained popularity in the s as Björn Borg , Chris Evert , Jimmy Connors , and later Mats Wilander and Marat Safin used it to great effect, and it is now used by a large number of the world's best players, including Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams.

Two hands give the player more control, while one hand can generate a slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory bounce.

Reach is also limited with the two-handed shot. The player long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge , had a powerful one-handed stroke in the s and s that imparted topspin onto the ball.

Ken Rosewall , another player noted for his one-handed backhand, used a very accurate slice backhand through the s and s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles , use two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides.

A volley is a shot returned to the opponent in mid-air before the ball bounces, generally performed near the net, and is usually made with a stiff-wristed punching motion to hit the ball into an open area of the opponent's court.

The half volley is made by hitting the ball on the rise just after it has bounced, also generally in the vicinity of the net, and played with the racket close to the ground.

It is an offensive shot used to take preparation time away from the opponent, as it returns the ball into the opponent's court much faster than a standard volley.

From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it over the opponent's head.

If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the other court, however, an opponent near the net may then hit an overhead smash , a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point.

A difficult shot in tennis is the return of an attempted lob over the backhand side of a player. When the contact point is higher than the reach of a two-handed backhand, most players will try to execute a high slice under the ball or sideways.

Fewer players attempt the backhand sky-hook or smash. Rarely, a player will go for a high topspin backhand, while themselves in the air.

A successful execution of any of these alternatives requires balance and timing, with less margin of error than the lower contact point backhands, since this shot is a break in the regular pattern of play.

If an opponent is deep in his court, a player may suddenly employ an unexpected drop shot , by softly tapping the ball just over the net so that the opponent is unable to run in fast enough to retrieve it.

Advanced players will often apply back spin to a drop shot, causing the ball to "skid" upon landing and bounce sideways, with less forward momentum toward their opponent, or even backwards towards the net, thus making it even more difficult to return.

Muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in tennis. Muscle , cartilage , nerves , bursae , ligaments and tendons may be damaged from overuse.

The repetitive use of a particular muscle without time for repair and recovery is the most common cause of injury. Tournaments are often organized by gender and number of players.

Common tournament configurations include men's singles, women's singles, and doubles, where two players play on each side of the net.

Tournaments may be organized for specific age groups, with upper age limits for youth and lower age limits for senior players. There are also tournaments for players with disabilities, such as wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis.

Most large tournaments seed players, but players may also be matched by their skill level. According to how well a person does in sanctioned play, a player is given a rating that is adjusted periodically to maintain competitive matches.

Average club players under this system would rate 3. The four Grand Slam tournaments are considered to be the most prestigious tennis events in the world.

Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Masters men and Premier events women.

There are , more than any other professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top , qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards.

Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play best-of-three. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters and the Miami Masters.

Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests. Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis competitions.

These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies. For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly white.

Andre Agassi chose to skip Wimbledon from through citing the event's traditionalism, particularly its "predominantly white" dress code.

Each event is held annually, and a win at one of these events is worth ranking points. When the ATP , led by Hamilton Jordan , began running the men's tour in , the directors designated the top nine tournaments, outside of the Grand Slam events, as "Super 9" events.

In November at the end of the tennis year, the world's top eight players compete in the ATP World Tour Finals , a tournament with a rotating locale.

It is currently held in London, England. In August the ATP announced major changes to the tour that were introduced in The Masters Series was renamed to the "Masters ", the addition of the number referring to the number of ranking points earned by the winner of each tournament.

Contrary to earlier plans, the number of tournaments was not reduced from nine to eight and the Monte Carlo Masters remains part of the series although, unlike the other events, it does not have a mandatory player commitment.

The Hamburg Masters has been downgraded to a point event. The Madrid Masters moved to May and onto clay courts, and a new tournament in Shanghai took over Madrid's former indoor October slot.

It is mandatory for leading players to enter at least four events, including at least one after the US Open.

It is composed of about events and, as a result, features a more diverse range of countries hosting events.

These tournaments also contribute towards a player's ATP rankings points. Premier events for women form the most prestigious level of events on the Women's Tennis Association Tour after the Grand Slam tournaments.

These events offer the largest rewards in terms of points and prize money. The Premier events were introduced in replacing the previous Tier I and II tournament categories.

Currently four tournaments are Premier Mandatory, five tournaments are Premier 5, and twelve tournaments are Premier. The first tiering system in women's tennis was introduced in International tournaments are the second main tier of the WTA tour and consist of 31 tournaments, with a prize money for every event at U.

Professional tennis players enjoy the same relative perks as most top sports personalities: clothing, equipment and endorsements. Like players of other individual sports such as golf, they are not salaried, but must play and finish highly in tournaments to obtain prize money.

In recent years, some controversy has surrounded the involuntary or deliberate noise caused by players' grunting. While players are gradually less competitive in singles by their late 20s and early 30s, they can still continue competitively in doubles as instanced by Martina Navratilova and John McEnroe , who won doubles titles in their 40s.

In the Open Era, several female players such as Martina Navratilova , Margaret Court , Martina Hingis , Serena Williams , and Venus Williams the latter two sisters playing together have been prolific at both singles and doubles events throughout their careers.

John McEnroe is one of the very few professional male players to be top ranked in both singles and doubles at the same time, [96] [97] [98] and Yevgeny Kafelnikov is the most recent male player to win multiple Grand Slams in both singles and doubles during the same period of his career.

In terms of public attention and earnings see below , singles champions have far surpassed their doubles counterparts. The Open Era, particularly the men's side, has seen many top-ranked singles players that only sparingly compete in doubles, while having "doubles specialists" who are typically being eliminated early in the singles draw but do well in the doubles portion of a tournament.

Woodbridge noted that while top singles players earn enough that they don't need to nor want to play doubles, he suggested that lower-ranked singles players outside the Top Ten should play doubles to earn more playing time and money.

The Olympics doubles tennis tournament necessitates that both members of a doubles pairing be from the same country, hence several top professional pairs such as Jamie Murray and Bruno Soares cannot compete in the Olympics.

Top-ranked singles players that are usually rivals on the professional circuit, such as Boris Becker and Michael Stich , and Roger Federer and Stan Wawrinka have formed a rare doubles partnership for the Olympics.

Unlike professional tennis tournaments see below where singles players receive much more prize money than doubles players, an Olympic medal for both singles and doubles has similar prestige.

The Olympics is more of a priority for doubles champions while singles champions often skip the tournament. For the Olympics , Lisa Raymond was passed over for Team USA in favor of Serena Williams by captain Billie Jean King , even though Raymond was the top-ranked doubles player in the world at the time, and Raymond unsuccessfully challenged the selection.

In professional tennis tournaments such as Wimbledon , the singles competition receives the most prize money and coverage, followed by doubles, and then mixed doubles usually receive the lowest monetary awards.

The following players have won at least five singles titles at Grand Slam tournaments :. A frequent topic of discussion among tennis fans and commentators is who was the greatest male singles player of all time.

By a large margin, an Associated Press poll in named Bill Tilden as the greatest player of the first half of the 20th century. Championships seven times.

In , however, Donald Budge became the first person to win all four major singles titles during the same calendar year, the Grand Slam , and won six consecutive major titles in and Tilden called Budge "the finest player days a year that ever lived.

Kramer was among the few who dominated amateur and professional tennis during the late s and early s. Tony Trabert has said that of the players he saw before the start of the Open Era , Kramer was the best male champion.

Budge reportedly believed that Gonzales was the greatest player ever. I think his game was the best game ever. Better than mine.

He was capable of making more shots than anybody. His two volleys were great. His overhead was enormous.

He had the most natural tennis mind with the most natural tennis physique. Before and during the Open Era, Rod Laver remains the only male player in history to have won the calendar year Grand Slam twice in and [] and also the calendar year Professional Grand Slam in Andre Agassi , the first of two male players in history to have achieved a Career Golden Slam in singles tennis followed by Rafael Nadal , has been called the best service returner in the history of the game.

By the early twenty-first century, Roger Federer is considered by many observers to have the most "complete" game in modern tennis.

He has won 20 grand slam titles and 6 World Tour Finals, the most for any male player. Many experts of tennis, former tennis players and his own tennis peers believe Federer is the greatest player in the history of the game.

As with the men there are frequent discussions about who is the greatest female singles player of all time with Steffi Graf , Martina Navratilova and Serena Williams being the three players most often nominated.

In March the TennisChannel published a combined list of the greatest men and women tennis players of all time. The rankings were determined by an international panel.

Sportswriter John Wertheim of Sports Illustrated stated in an article in July that Serena Williams is the greatest female tennis player ever with the argument that "Head-to-head, on a neutral surface i.

Steffi Graf is considered by some to be the greatest female player. Billie Jean King said in , "Steffi is definitely the greatest women's tennis player of all time.

Tennis magazine selected Martina Navratilova as the greatest female tennis player for the years through From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Tennis disambiguation. Ball sport with racket and net. Roger Federer hitting a backhanded shot in Main article: History of tennis.

Main article: Tennis technology. Main article: Tennis ball. For individual terms, see Glossary of tennis terms.

Main article: Tennis court. Main article: Point tennis. Main article: Tennis scoring system. For software term, see Breakpoint. See also: Types of tennis match.

Main article: Official tennis. Main article: Junior tennis. Main article: Tennis shots. Main article: Grip Tennis.

Main article: Serve tennis. Main article: Forehand. Main article: Backhand. Main article: Tennis injuries. See also: List of tennis tournaments.

See also: Lists of tennis records and statistics. Further information: Tennis male players statistics and World number one male tennis player rankings.

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Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 7 May The first violation of this Section shall be penalised by a Time Violation warning and each subsequent violation shall be penalised by the assessment of one Time Violation point penalty.

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